The Scholars Who Narrated a Consensus (Ijma) on Allah Being Above the Heavens Above His Throne
Alot of innovators these days do not feel any shame in attributing lies to Allah and twist the meaning of Quranic verses according to their desires.This Article will not only prove that there is Ijma of the scholars of this Ummah that Allah is above the throne, rather it also contains responses to the Proofs presented by the Innovators in order to justify that “Allah is every where” e.g See the statement of Abu Umar Al-Atalmanki (rah).
Imaam al-Awzaa’ee (88 – 157 H) said:“We and the Taabi’oonunanimously say: Verily, Allaah, the Glorious, has mentioned that He is above His Arsh (Throne), and we believe in what is related in the Sunnah regarding His Attributes.”
Qutayba bin Saeed:“This is the view of the Al-Aemaah (the scholars) in Islam, and the Sunnah and Jammah confirm this that our Lord is above the seventh Heaven, above his throne, just as He says:
“The Most Merciful [who is] above the Throne Established.” 
Ishaac bin Rahiwayah (166 – 238 H): “The Ijma (consensus) of the scholars is that Allah is above the Throne which He rose over. His knowledge encompasses everything (including) what is beneath the seven earths.” 
Uthmaan bin Saeed Al-Daarimee (died 280 H): “And it is agreed by the Muslims and non-Muslim alike that Allah is above the Heavens.” He also said: “And it was agreed upon by the Muslims that Allah is above His throne, above His Heavens.” 
Imam Abu Bakr Al-Aajiree (280 – 360 H): “And the belief that the scholars have adopted is that Allah is above His Throne, above His Heavens and his Knowledge encompasses everything” 
Other Scholars that have narrated a Consensus on this Issue Include:
Abu Hatim Arazee (died 277 H): “Our Madhab (our way) and our choice is following (the example) of the Prophet of Allah and his Sahaba (companions) and the Taabi’oon (the students of the Sahaba) who came after them,
And (also) to hold firm to the Madhab of the scholars of Hadith, the likes of Ashafe’e and Ahmad and Isshaq and Abu Abaid may Allah have mercy on them. And (also) to keep to the Qur’an and the Sunnah. And we believe that Allah rose over his throne (and is) separate from creation,as Allah says:
“There is nothing like unto Him,and He is the Hearing, the Seeing.” 
Abu Zaraah (died 264 H): was asked about the Madhab of Ahlus Sunnah in regards to the fundamentals of belief, and what beliefs the scholars of his time were on. He replied, “I was a contemporary of the scholars of all the lands and from their Madhabs is the belief that: Eeman (faith or belief) is sayings and actions, it increases and decreases and that the Qur’an is the literal word of Allah and is not created.
And Predestination (Qadr), the good and the evil thereof are from Allah, and that Allah rose over His throne, (is) separate from His creation just as He has described Himself in His Book (The Qur’an) and on the tongue of His Messenger, without describing how, and His Knowledge encompasses everything, as Allah says:
“There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the Hearing, the Seeing.”
Ali bin Al-Madani: He was asked about the belief of Ahlus Sunnah Wa Jamaah,
He replied, “They believe in seeing Allah (in the Hereafter), and (they also believe) in the speech of Allah, And that Allah is above the heavens, above His throne which He rose over (in a way that suits His Majesty).”
Hamad Al-Boshanjee: “This is what we seen of the scholars of the lands on (belief) and what their Madhabs indicated…….and the clarity of the methodology of the scholars of Ahlus Sunnah is that Allah is above the seventh heaven established above His throne, (is) separated from His creation and His knowledge and His sovereignty and His power is everywhere.” 
Saeed bin Amer Adabee: When the Jahimiyahwere mentioned in his presence he proclaimed that, “They are worse than the Jews and the Christians in speech. For verily the Jews and the Christians together with the Muslims are unanimous on (the belief) that Allah is established above the throne, and they (the Jahimiyah) say, ‘They (the Muslims, Jews and Christians) are on falsehood.’” 
Zakareya bin Yahya Assajee: “The view of the (Ahlus) Sunnah that I have perceived our companions the scholars of Hadith whom are our contemporaries are on is that Allah is established above His throne, is (above) His heavens, He brings near to Him whom he wills from His creation how He wills.” 
Statements from the Scholars from the Four Madhabs
The Hanafi Madhab 
Abu Nasr Asajee (died 444 H):“And the belief of the people of truth (Ahl il-Haqq) is that Allah is above the throne in His true essence (be-dha-te-he).” 
Ibn Abee Al-Izz (721 – 792 H) the commentator of ‘At-tahawee’ stated:“And His Loftiness just as it is affirmed in the Qur’an and Sunnah (it) is (also) affirmed by the intellect and by natural instinct.
As for it being affirmed by natural instinct (it) is that the creation as a whole in their natural disposition (the Fitra) and unimpaired hearts raise their hands during supplication and they intentionally seek the direction of elevation in their hearts upon invoking Allah” 
Mustaja Zadah (died 1148 H) stated in his commentary on ‘Naskhat min Minhaj as-Sunnah’: “There is no doubt that our pious predecessors (the Salaf), the likes of the companions (the Sahaba), the ones that succeeded them and the ones that succeeded them are the most pious of people and the most God fearing, and the strictest in following the example of the Prophet of Allah, and most knowledgeable of what Allah and His Messenger required and meant. For all of them are in total agreement that He (Allah) is above his throne in (His true) essence (be-dha-te-he).
Also the great scholars like our Imaam Abu Haneefah, Imam Ashafe’e, Imaam Maalik, Imaam Ahmad and others apart from them are unanimous and in agreement that He (Allah) is above His throne in (His true) essence. And the saying of ta’weel  and istila’a occurred after a wicked man came in the time of Banu Ummayah. So the affliction of the Jahimiyah spread amongst the people after this wicked man.
The Maliki Madhab
Ibn Abee Zayd Al-Qayrawani (died 389 H) said in his book ‘Al-Jamaah’:
“And from the issues that the scholars of Islam have had a consensus on concerning the principles of the religion and the actions of the Prophet that was succeeded by Innovation and delusion, (is) that Allah blessed is His name (and) to Him belong the most beautiful names and the most perfect attributes, that He (Allah) is above His heavens above His throne without His earth (i.e separate from His Creation).”
Abu Umar Al-Atalmanki (339 – 429 H):“The Muslims from amongst Ahlus Sunnah Wa Jammah have agreed that the meaning of the saying ofAllah:
“And He is with you wherever you maybe” and similar verses from the Qur’an is that it is His Knowledge (ie Allah is with you by his knowledge not physically). And that Allah is above the heavens in His (true) essence, above His throne in a way suiting (His majesty).” 
Ibn Abd il-Baar (368 – 463 H) the author of ‘At-tamheed’ stated in ‘At-tamheed’ 7/ 129 & 134, In the course of his commentary on the Hadeeth Al-Nuzool : “In it (the Hadith) there is proof that Allah is above the heavens above the throne from above seven heavens, just as the community of Muslims have stated.”
He also stated: “And as proof also that Allah is above His throne, above the seven heavens is that the Monotheists (Muwahideen) as a whole both Arabs and non-Arabs alike, if something grieved them or they were inflicted by something stressful they directed their faces towards the heavens and sought aid from their Lord.
And this practice is widely known to all classes of Muslims and it suffices just to mention it without commenting because there is compulsion in it and no Muslim ever refuted this practice.” 
Al-Qurtabi (died 671 H) stated in his Tafseer when commenting on the following Verse:
“Indeed your Lord is Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth in Six Days, and then He Istawâ (rose over) the Throne (really in a manner that suits His Majesty). He brings the night as a cover over the day, seeking it rapidly, and (He created) the sun, the moon, the stars subjected to His Command. Surely, His is the Creation and Commandment. Blessed be Allah, the Lord of the ‘Alamîn (mankind, jinns and all that exists)!” 
Al-Qurtabee commented: “The first generation of the Salaf may Allah be pleased with them did not deny direction (with regard to Allah), and they did not say anything to that effect. They affirmed direction in accordance with what Allah has said in His book and what His Messenger had told them.
No one denies that He (Allah) rose over His throne in a real sense (ie. we take the literal meaning). This applies only to the throne because it is the greatest thing in His Creation. But we do not know how he rose over it, because we can not know the true nature of this.” 
The Shafi’ee Madhab
Ibn Khuzayma stated (in At-Tawheed 1/254) in the Chapter regarding this topic:
“That Allah is above the heaven just as He informed us in the Qur’an and through the tongue of His Prophet and just as it is known through a (persons) natural disposition (the fitra) of the Muslims. The learned amongst them and the ignorant amongst them, The free among them and enslaved among them, their men and women, the matured among them and the children. All who supplicate (to) Allah indeed raise their heads towards the heaven and stretch their hands towards Allah, (they direct their faces and hands) in the direction of above not below.”
Abu Uthmaan As-saubuni stated in his book ‘the creed of the Salaf and Scholars of Hadeeth’, pages 36 & 37: “And the scholars of Hadith believe and testify that Allah is above the heavens above His throne just as His book pronounced.”
He also stated:“And the scholars of the Salaf may Allah have mercy on them did not disagree in that Allah rose above His throne and that His throne is above the heavens.”
Al-Asbahaani stated: “Ahlus Sunnah have stated that Allah is above the heavens, none of His creation is above Him and the proof regarding this is that the creation point to the sky with their fingers and they supplicate to Him and they raise their sight towards Him.”
He also stated:“And the Muslims were unanimous on that Allah, He is the (most) high of the most high and the Qur’an pronounced this in His saying:
”Exalt the name of your Lord, the Most High.” And it is known by the Muslims that to Allah belongs the highness of predominance from the remaining aspects of highness. That is because the attribute of highness is an attribute of praise and commendation, for it is affirmed that to Allah belongs highness of essence and highness of attributes and highness of conquering and predominance.” 
Adh-habee (673 – 748 H), the Islamic Historian stated in his book ‘Al-Uwloo’ page 195:“And Allah is above his throne just as the first (generations) agreed upon and theImaams (who) reported from them.”
Abu Umar At-almanky: “The Muslims from Ahlus Sunnah are unanimous that the meaning of Allahs words:
“And He is with you wherever you are” and other verses to this effect are His knowledge, and verily Allah is above the heavens in His essence, established above His throne how He wills” 
Abu Bakr Al-Ismaeeli (277 – 371 H): “Know may Allah have mercy on you that creed of Ahlus Sunnah Wa Jamaa’ah is to belief in Allah, His Angles, His books and His Messengers and to accept what Allah has said, and to also accept the authentic narrations from the Prophet and not stray away from what was narrated.
And they (Ahlus Sunnah Wa Jamaa’ah) believe that Allah is supplicated (to) by His beautiful names. And is described by His attributes that He has described Himself with and (what) His Prophet has described Him with. He (Allah) created Adam with His Hands, and his two hands are stretched out, without asking how and He rose above the throne without (asking) how, for verily it came to pass that He established Himself above the throne and He did not mention how this was performed.” 
Al-Bagawi (436 – 516 H):He commented on the verse
“Then He rose over the throne”by stating, “The Mutazilah interpreted “Al-Istawa” with “Istila’a” as for (the view)of Ahlus Sunnah they say that rising over the throne is an attribute of Allah without Kayf (asking how) and the belief in it is obligatory.” 
The Hanbali Madhab
Ibn Qudama (died 720 H)stated in his book ‘Ithbaat Sifat Al-Uwloo’: “That Allah the Most High affirmed for Himself the attribute of loftiness (Uwloo) above the heavens, and His Prophet Muhammad the seal of the Prophets affirmed this for Allah as well.
Also it was unanimously agreed upon by the Scholars from the Sahaba (the most God fearing of people) and the Imaams from amongst the jurist, and the reports regarding this (ie. Allah’s Loftiness) were narrated in succession (Tawatir) in that certainty was obtained, and Allah gathered the hearts of the Muslims on this and He implanted it in their natural disposition (the Fitra) of all the creation.”
Abu Hasan Al-Ash’aree (died 324 H): “And they (the Muslims) were unanimous that He (Allah) is pleased by those who are obedient to Him… And that He (Allah) is above the heavens above His throne separate from His creation (i.e. earth)and the verses of the Qur’an clearly indicate this, such as the saying Allah:
Do you feel secure that He, Who is over the heaven (Allah), will not cause the earth to sink with you, then behold it shakes (as in an earthquake)? 
Abu Hasan Al-Ash’aree also stated in his book ‘Al-Ibanah un Usool Adeeneyah’: “And we see all the Muslims raise their hands towards the heaven when they supplicate, that is because Allah has risen above his throne, and that (the throne) is above the heavens. And if Allah did not establish (Himself) above His throne, they the Muslims would not raise their hands towards the direction of the throne (ie. above the heavens).” 
Ibn Batah (304 – 387 H): “There was a consensus amongst the Sahaba (companions) and the ones who followed them (the Tabi’een) that Allah is established above His throne, above His Heavens and is separate from His creation.” 
Yahya bin Ma’aaz Ar-Razi: “Verily Allah rose above the throne and is separate from His creation. His knowledge encompasses everything, no one departed from this view except a Jahmi, who blended Allah with His creation.” 
Ibn Qutayba: “And if only they (those who claim Allah is everywhere) returned to their Fitra (their natural disposition) and what their (inner) selves were built upon in the knowing of their creator, they would have known that Allah is the exalted and he is the Most-high, and that the hands are raised to Him in supplication, and all the nations, the non-Arabs and the Arabs alike say that Allah is above the Heavens.
Ibn Sereej: He was asked regarding the view of the Salaf (the Pious Predecessors) concerning the attributes of Allah, he replied, “It is prohibited for the intellect to liken Allah to his creatures, and (also for) ones illusion to confine Allah or to describe Allah contrary to what Allah has described Himself in His book or on the tongue of His Prophet. And It is proven that the belief of all Ahlus Sunnah til our current time is to believe in all the verses (of theQur’an), and the narrations of the Prophet which are authentic and it is obligatory on all the Muslims to believe in every one of them how it is narrated, and the question on the how (the attribute) is, is an innovation and the answer (to it) is kufr (disbelief).” 
Al-Khatabee (died 388 H): When he answered the question regarding the texts (from the Qur’an and Sunnah) that mention the attributes of Allah and the belief in it, he said, “For verily the creed of the Salaf (the Pious Predecessors) was to affirm the texts and act upon its literal meaning, and to avoid Kayfeya (asking how the Attributes are) and to (also avoid) Tamtheel (likening Allah to His creation).” 
Ibn Al-Baq-lani (died 403 H):“And verily we have demonstrated the belief of the Al-Aemaah (the scholars) and Ahlus Sunnah that these attributes pass just as they have reached us without asking how (the Attributes are) and (without) confinement and likeness, just as Azuhri and Maalik narrated concerning the establishment (of Allah) above the throne. For who so ever exceeds this for verily he has transgressed and innovated and strayed (from the right path).” 
Abu Na’eem Al-Asbahaani (336 – 430 H): He stated “Our way is the way of the Salaf (the Pious Predecessors) that followed the Kitaab (the Qur’an) and Sunnah and the Ijma (Consensus) of the Ummah (Muslim community)……..We believe in the Authentic Hadith about the throne and Allahs establishment above it (the throne) just as they believed, and we affirm this without asking how (kayf) and without likeness (tamtheel), (we also believe) that Allah is separate from His creation and His creation is separate from Him. He (Allah) is not incorporated in them and is not mixed in them. And He is established above His throne above His Heavens separate from the earth.” 
Al-Qadir Bilahi Ameer Al-Moumineen (335 – 422 H): He read out in public in front of prominent scholars the creed of Ahlus Sunnah Wa Jamaa’ah and from it he stated “And He (Allah) created the throne for no necessity, and He rose over it how He willed, not for comfort or relaxation, and every attribute He described Himself with or his Prophet described Him by is a real attribute and not figurative speech and His speech is not created and He sent it (the Qur’an which is the words of Allah) down upon His Prophet.” 
Al-Khateeb A-Baghdadi (392 – 463 H): He stated: “As for the attributes, for what was authentically narrated regarding it (Allahs attributes), the creed of the Salaf was to affirm it and act upon its literal meaning and to avoid Kayfeya (asking how the Attributes are) and to (also avoid) Tamtheel (likening Allah to His creation).” 
 The Taabi’oon are students of the Sahaba who are the Companions of the Prophet Muhammad.
Reported by Al-Baihaqi with a Saheeh chain of narrators in Fath ul-Baree & Al-Baihaqi’s book ‘Al-Asmat wa Sifat, page 515
 Surah 20. Ta Ha, Verse 5
‘Al-Uwloo’ by Adh-habee, page 128
‘Al-Uwloo’ by Adh-habee, page 132 & Muktaser Al-Uwloo for Adh-habee by Al-Banee, page 194
‘Imaam Al-Daarimee rad ala Al-Bishre al-Marese’, page 25 & 50 & Muktaser Al-Uwloo for Adh-habee’ by Al-Banee, page 213
Kitab at-Shareeh, page 288 &Muktaser Al-Uwloo for Adh-habee’ by Al-Banee, page 247
There is no similarity whatsoever between the Creator and His creation in essence or in attributes.
Surah 42. Ash-Shura, Verse 11
Muktaser Al-Uwloo for Adh-habee by Al-Banee, page 207
 Surah 42. Ash-Shura, Verse 11
‘Muktaser Al-Uwloo for Adh-habee’ by Al-Banee, page 204
‘Muktaser Al-Uwloo for Adh-habee’ by Al-Banee, page 189
‘Muktaser Al-Uwloo for Adh-habee’ by Al-Banee, page 225
‘Muktaser Al-Uwloo for Adh-habee’ by Al-Banee, page 168
‘Muktaser Al-Uwloo for Adh-habee’ by Al-Banee, page 223
Abu Muti’ Al-Balkhi reported: “I asked Imam Abu Haneefah (80 – 150 H) about a person who says, ‘I do not know whether my Rubb (Lord) is, above the heavens or on earth?’ Abu Haneefah, may Allah grant him His mercy, said: ‘A person who makes such a statement becomes an apostate because Allah, the Exalted says, ‘The Merciful has established himself above the ‘Arsh (Throne), and the ‘Arsh of Allah is above His heavens’. I further asked Abu Haneefah, ‘What if such a person admits, Allah is above His ‘Arsh, but says, I do not know whether His ‘Arsh is above the heavens or on earth’. Abu Haneefah responded: ‘If he denies that the ‘Arsh is above the heavens, he is an apostate.” Mentioned in ‘Fiqh Al-Akbar’
‘Muktaser Al-Uwloo for Adh-habee’ by Al-Banee, page 266
‘Sharh (commentary) on At-tahawee’, page 304
Interpreting the meaning away from its literal meaning eg. Like saying Allahs hands mean power.
Saying that Is tawa (rising over) means that Allah conquered or seized the Arsh (Throne).
The wicked man referred to is Jahm ibn Safwan (died 128 H), the leader of the Jahimiyah of his time, who was later on, executed for his extreme beliefs.
Abdullah bin Nafi’ reported: Malik bin Anas (93 – 179 H) said: ‘Allah is above the heavens, but His knowledge encompasses everything. Nothing escapes His knowledge.’ Reported by Abdullah ibn Ahmad is as-Sunnah page 5, Abu Daawood in al-Masaa’il page 263, al-Aajurree in ash-Sharee’ah page 289 and al-Lakalikaa’ee 1/92/2. Its isnaad (chain) is Saheeh (Authentic).
Muktaser Al-Uwloo for Adh-habee’ by Al-Banee, page 255
Surah 57. Al-Hadeed, Verse 4
‘Muktaser Al-Uwloo for Adh-habee’ by Al-Banee, page 264
The Prophet said,“Every night, when the last third of it remains, Allah, our Sustainer, the Blessed, the Superior, descends to the lowest heaven saying, ‘Is there anyone to ask Me so that I may grant him his request? Is there anyone to invoke Me so that I may respond to his invocation? Is there anyone seeking My forgiveness so that I may forgive him?’” (Sahih Muslim)
‘Muktaser Al-Uwloo for Adh-habee’ by Al-Banee, page 268
Surah 7. Al-Araf, Verse 54
‘Muktaser Al-Uwloo for Adh-habee’ by Al-Banee, page 286
Imaam ash-Shafi’ee (150 – 204 H) said: “The creed which I hold is the same creed the Muslims before me were holding like Sufyaan, Maalik and others is, the Testimony of Faith: “There is no god worthy of being worshipped except Allah, that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, and that Allah is above His ‘Arsh, above the heavens. He descends to the lowest heaven whenever He wishes.” ‘Muktaser Al-Uwloo for Adh-habee’ by Al-Banee, page 176.
Surah 87. Al-Ala, Verse 1
Al-Haja’ 2/82 & 2/114
Surah 57. Al-Hadeed, Verse 4
‘Muktaser Al-Uwloo for Adh-habee’ by Al-Banee, page
‘Muktaser Al-Uwloo for Adh-habee’ by Al-Banee, page 248
Surah 7. Al-Araf, Verse 54
Al-Istawameans to rise over. Eg, “Allah rose over the throne (in a way that suits His majesty).”
Istila’a means to seize or capture
‘Muktaser Al-Uwloo for Adh-habee’ by Al-Banee, page 280
Imaam Ahmad (164 – 241 H) was asked: “Is Allah above His ‘Arsh, above the seventh heaven, separate from His creatures, and is His knowledge and power encompassing everything everywhere? He replied: ‘Certainly, He is above His ‘Arsh and nothing escapes His knowledge.” Reported by al-Khallaal in al-Mukhtasar and its isnaad is Sahih (Authentic).
Surah 67. Al-Mulk, Verse 16
‘Al-Ibanah’, page 36
‘Muktaser Al-Uwloo for Adh-habee’ by Al-Banee, page 253
A follower of the Jahimiyah sect.
‘Muktaser Al-Uwloo for Adh-habee’ by Al-Banee, page 208
‘Muktaser Al-Uwloo for Adh-habee’ by Al-Banee, page 216
‘Muktaser Al-Uwloo for Adh-habee’ by Al-Banee, page 226
‘Muktaser Al-Uwloo for Adh-habee’ by Al-Banee, page 257
‘Muktaser Al-Uwloo for Adh-habee’ by Al-Banee, page 259
‘Muktaser Al-Uwloo for Adh-habee’ by Al-Banee, page 261
‘Muktaser Al-Uwloo for Adh-habee’ by Al-Banee, page 263
‘Muktaser Al-Uwloo for Adh-habee’ by Al-Banee, page 282
Via : Writen By Brother Abdul Baseer – May Allah Reward His Effort. . Ameen……….!!
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