Rulings on Combining Prayers


The causes for combining prayers:

1) Travelling:

Narrated Anas bin Malik: Whenever the Prophet (ﷺ) started the journey before noon, he used to delay the Zuhr prayer till the time for the `Asr prayer and then he would dismount and pray them together; and whenever the sun declined before he started the journey he used to offer the Zuhr prayer and then ride (for the journey).

Recorded by Bukhari

Reference: Sahih al-Bukhari 1110
In-book reference: Book 18, Hadith 30
USC-MSA web (English) reference: Vol. 2, Book 20, Hadith 212

2) Rain (combining due to rain should only take place in the masjid, not when at home):

Nafi said, “When the governors would combine the Maghrib and Isha prayers due to rain, Abdullah ibn Umar would combine them with them.” Hisham ibn Urwah stated, “His father Urwah, Sa’eed ibn al-Musayyab and Abu Bakr ibn Abdur Rahman ibn al-Harith ibn Hisham ibn al-Mugheerah al-Makhzoomi used to combine the Maghrib and Isha prayers on rainy nights if the people would combine those prayers and they did not object to that.”

Recorded by Malik in hi Muwatta. Graded Sahih by Sheikh al-Albaani

3) Due to some temporary need that arises and on a random basis:

Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas: The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) combined the noon and afternoon prayers, and the sunset and night prayers at Medina without any danger and rain. He was asked: What did he intend by it? He replied: He intended that his community might not fall into hardship.

Recorded by Abu Dawud. Graded Sahih by Sheikh al-Albaani

Reference: Sunan Abi Dawud 1211
In-book reference: Book 4, Hadith 14
English translation: Book 4, Hadith 1207

Ibn ‘Abbas reported that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) combined the noon prayer with the afternoon prayer and the sunset prayer with the ‘Isha’ prayer in Medina without being in a state of danger or rainfall. And in the hadith transmitted by Waki’ (the words are):”I said to Ibn ‘Abbas: What prompted him to do that? He said: So that his (Prophet’s) Ummah should not be put to (unnecessary) hardship.” And in the hadith transmitted by Mu’awiyah (the words are):” It was said to Ibn ‘Abbas: What did he intend thereby? He said he wanted that his Ummah should not be put to unnecessary hardship.”

Recorded in Muslim

Reference: Sahih Muslim 705 c

In-book reference: Book 6, Hadith 61
USC-MSA web (English) reference: Book 4, Hadith 1517

Ibn ‘Abbas reported: The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) observed the noon and afternoon prayers together in Medina without being in a state of fear or in a state of journey. (Abu Zubair said: I asked Sa’id [one of the narrators] why he did that. He said: I asked Ibn ‘Abbas as you have asked me, and he replied that he [the Prophet] wanted that no one among his Ummah should be put to [unnecessary] hardship.)

Recorded in Muslim

Reference: Sahih Muslim 705 b
In-book reference: Book 6, Hadith 60
USC-MSA web (English) reference: Book 4, Hadith 1516

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